Leading international specialists in the field of art history have released the initial findings of a four year collaborative research project centring around one of Glasgow Museums’ most famous paintings, the Lady in a Fur Wrap.

Lady in a Fur Wrap was purchased by Sir William Stirling Maxwell in 1853. It is one of an important collection of Spanish works, which together with Pollok House, was donated to the City of Glasgow in 1967 by Sir William’s granddaughter Dame Anne Maxwell Macdonald. It is planned the painting will return to Pollok House, run by the National Trust for Scotland, in summer 2020 with a fresh interpretation.

Duncan Dornan, Head of Glasgow Museums, part of Glasgow Life, said: ‘Through our partnership with leading experts in the field of Spanish art we have gained a much fuller understanding and appreciation of this important painting. After detailed analysis and examination, we are closer to understanding who painted one of Glasgow Museums’ most popular and internationally recognised artworks’.

‘The Lady in a Fur Wrap is a fascinating portrait. This technical study has also, excitingly, revealed unexpected elements such as traces of underdrawing hidden behind the surface. These suggest a different style of dress for the Lady, before the eye-catching fur cape was introduced. These are all elements that continue to attract debate and although we now understand who painted the work the identity of the mysterious lady is still unanswered. It is certain the Lady in a Fur Wrap will continue to intrigue and inspire for generations to come.’

Using the opportunity of the Lady in a Fur Wrap being on loan to the Prado in Madrid for the 2014 celebrations for the 4th centenary of El Greco’s death, technical examination of the painting was carried out at the museum that year. A broad spectrum of scientific examination techniques (imaging and analytical) were employed to ensure a very in-depth understanding of the material-technical aspects of this painting: different photographic techniques including raking light and UV fluorescence photography, X-radiography, infrared reflectography (IRR), stereomicroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX). Further analysis with fluorescent staining and FTIR APA Imaging on paint cross sections prepared by the Prado was carried out in 2018 by the University of Glasgow and Bern University of Applied Sciences.

With our colleagues at the Prado and the University of Glasgow, it was decided that in order to be able to understand and interpret the results similar examination needed to be carried out using equivalent analytical equipment and procedures on comparative works by El Greco and other contemporary artists, such as Alonso Sánchez Coello.

A comprehensive research project was set up in Glasgow to unpack the complex history and significance of this unique painting. It explored questions of artistic technique, and used scientific analysis and further research methods involving the history of dress, society and collecting. The project compared the results with equivalent scientific investigation and additional research on five other major 16th-century Spanish portraits in the Stirling Maxwell collection in Glasgow. Further, it drew on the results of similar research on paintings held by international institutions such as the Prado Museum.

Through this collaborative and comparative approach the partners’ understanding of the context of portraiture and artistic practice in this period in Spain was greatly enhanced.

Dr Mark Richter, University of Glasgow, who coordinated the scientific investigation in Glasgow, explained: “Through technical analysis of the painting’s surface, as well as analysis of microscopic paint samples, we now know much more about how this most enigmatic portrait was painted and the relationship of its materials and methods of creation to those of other important pictures in this and other collections.

‘All the evidence indicates that the materials and techniques used in the creation of the painting are consistent with 16th century practice in Spain. However, the composition of the layers in the Lady in a Fur Wrap is different from paintings we know to be by El Greco. Most paintings are built up using multiple layers. In the 16th century, when this painting was made, these layers normally included a ground layer, a priming layer, multiple paint layers and finally varnish. Technical examination carried out by the Museo del Prado and the University of Glasgow has allowed us to examine these layers in detail. The composition of the layers in the Lady are considerably different from the layers seen in autograph works by El Greco.

‘One of the main differences is that El Greco typically primed his gessoed canvases with a layer of brownish-red. This distinctive layer tended to include precious pigments of many different colours, suggesting he used scrapings from his paint palette for this initial layer. The priming layer in the Lady does not correspond with this, instead it features a light grey layer. Another distinguishing trait is the painterly quality of his underdrawing, which is radically different from the drawn lines clearly visible in the infrared reflectography of this painting. Details like this, important for understanding an artist’s individual technique, help explain why the Lady in a Fur Wrap is no longer considered to be painted by El Greco.’

As a result of the Prado’s technical analysis on the Lady, they went on to examine in more detail artistic practice by portrait painters at the court of Philip II of Spain. One of these artists is Sofonisba Anguissola, the subject of a new exhibition at the museum in Madrid.

Head of Spanish Renaissance Painting, Museo Nacional del Prado, Dr Leticia Ruiz Gómez, said; ‘A conclusion has been reached that the Lady in a Fur Wrap is neither the work of El Greco, nor Sofonisba Anguissola, but the work of Alonso Sánchez Coello. I think this is a splendid Sánchez Coello.’
Dr Hilary Macartney, who led the research at the University of Glasgow, added: ‘Alonso Sánchez Coello was the principal portraitist at Philip II’s court and much favoured by the King. In his time Sánchez Coello was better known and more admired than El Greco. The misattribution of the Lady was instrumental in establishing El Greco’s reputation outside Spain in the 19th century. More recently the portrait’s popular association with Sofonisba Anguissola helped revive interest in her work. Now, at last, it will re-establish the international reputation that Alonso Sánchez Coello deserves.  

‘Other aspects in addition to the paint analysis have been crucial in concluding our findings. The case for attributing The Lady in the Fur Wrap to Sánchez Coello takes into account a range of factors, including stylistic characteristics. Sánchez Coello is most closely associated with conventional, formal royal portraits, however we now believe that he was also responsible for portraits of a different and more informal character, such as the Prado’s Unknown Young Woman, as well as The Lady in the Fur Wrap, which combined intimacy and current ideals of female beauty.

‘Together with leading scholars of Spanish art, dress and related historical fields we deliberated over features including dress and jewellery and the status of people represented in portraiture in this period. It is only in considering all these aspects that we have been able to attribute this outstanding portrait to Alonso Sánchez Coello.’